Soviet Kyiv

         In 1917-20 took place the revolution and civil war. The government changed many times: Kyiv was the capital of the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Ukrainian State of Skoropadskyi, Soviet Ukraine. In June 1920 Bolsheviks established themselves in Kyiv. The capital of the Ukrainian Republic moved to Kharkiv. In 1934 Kyiv becomes the capital of the Ukrainian SSR again. Famine of 1932-33 had its echo in Kyiv: villagers were fleeing here from starvation. Stalin's repressions 30th years also caused significant losses to Kyiv: many citizens were tortured to death by false accusations and without them; Bykivnia memorial on the outskirts of the city is an eternal monument of these events.

         During the Second World War the city also suffered enormous human and material losses: its central part was almost entirely destroyed, more than 100 thousand civilians and prisoners of war were shot at Babyn Yar, and the Battle for          Kyiv in 1943 became the most tragic pages of military chronicle.

Post-war reconstruction of Kyiv required tremendous efforts and victory of labor. At the end of 40ies the capital of Soviet Ukraine returned to the pre-war level of industrial production. In the 50s the rebuilding of Khreshchatyk ended, in 1960 opened the first line of the Kyiv Metro, mass housing construction started, and again Kyiv got features of beautiful and elegant city. In 1956 the population reached 1 million. Some weakening in the political regime was marked at the time: in the wake of "Khrushchov thaw" appeared talented young artists, public figures, scientists (V. Symonenko, I. Drach, L. Taniuk, A. Horska, I. Mykolaichuk). But after a brief liberalization in the 70's it was time of Brezhniev stagnation and "tightening of the screws," which eventually led to the final degradation of the existing system and its destruction.